5G Communication Network

Mobile communications is arguably the most adopted technology worldwide. Globally, there are 3.649 billion unique mobile users and 3.010 billion active internet users as at 2015. Despite these advances in communication systems, about 30% of the world is still unconnected. Furthermore, majority of the individuals experiencing these services are not enjoying the best communication services.

5G Transmitter5G communication network simply means fifth generation communication network. It aims to address the challenges of current communication networks such as the 3G and 4G networks. A number of bodies have been instituted to research the 5G network. They include the EU’s “Mobile and Wireless Communications Enablers for the Twenty-Twenty Information Society” (METIS) and the Chinese “International Mobile Telecommunications Twenty-Twenty” (IMT 2020). It is slated to be in use by 2020.

Importantly, 5G is an evolution of 4G. Therefore, it incorporates some of the technology components of 4G. 5G promises higher speeds, low power consumption, increased spectral efficiency and many more. There are expectations from 5G in the following areas:

Frequency (Spectrum)
Each generation of mobile technology has improved user experience through the ability to utilize additional frequency bands and wider transmission bandwidths. This increases both traffic capacity and achievable data rates. As such, 5G will also utilize additional spectrum and frequency bands.

Modulation Waveforms
5G modulation waveforms must be capable of handling high data rate, provide low latency transmissions, be capable of fast switching between uplink & downlink, and enable the possibility of energy efficient communications.

Modulation Techniques
A number of modulation techniques are being considered for the 5G network. However, the overall 5G modulation scheme will be adaptive thus, enabling the system to switch to the most optimum form of modulation for the given situation. Amplitude Phase Shift Keying (APSK), Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK), and 16 QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) are likely modulation techniques for 5G.

Techniques and Coverage
Techniques are the technologies deployed in achieving specific network requirements One of the key ideas of designing the 5G cellular architecture is to separate outdoor and indoor scenarios so that penetration loss through building walls can somehow be avoided. This will be achieved using Distributed Antenna Arrays (DAS) & Massive Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO). While geographically distributed antenna arrays will carry tens or hundreds of antenna elements, the massive MIMO systems is designed to exploit the potentially large capacity gains that would arise in larger arrays of antennas.

Access
The overall aim of the fifth generation network is to provide ubiquitous connectivity for any kind of device and any kind of application that may benefit from being connected. 5G networks will not be based on one specific radio-access technology. 5G access technology will be backward compatible with the technologies of previous communication networks.

Applications of 5G Globally
These include:

  • Self-driving vehicles
  • Virtual Interactive Reality
  • Synchronous data transmission
  • Cloud-controlled robots, thus increasing industrial mechanization
  • In-built wireless communication with AI (Artificial Intelligence)

If the 5G technology delivers up to 50% of its expectations, everyone, everywhere would be connected. Hospitals and clinics, including Winnipeg homecare, would experience low mortality rate as surgeries can be done remotely and in real-time. 5G will give birth to the next phase of human possibilities, bringing about the automation of everything. This automation, driven by a smart network, will create new businesses, give rise to new services and ultimately free up more time for people.

Fire Alarm and Detection: Zoning Systems

smoke alarmThe smoke and heat detectors installed in homes can be looped together and connected to the control and repeater panels, using any of the two standard zoning systems. Zoning simply means dividing the detectors into several groups or sections, where each group is separate and distinct from another group.

Types of Zoning Systems

1. The Conventional Zoning System
This is used for small to medium-size residential buildings. In the conventional system, each floor is regarded as a zone for buildings having more than one floor. In the event of a fire outbreak, the panels indicate the zone in which the fire is occurring. A major drawback of this system however, is its inability to indicate the exact location of the fire in the zone. It gives a general, rather than a particular location.

2. The Addressable Zoning System
The addressable zoning system is employed mainly for very large estates and high-rise commercial buildings. In this system, the zones or groups are designed and created in such a way that the exact location of the fire can be known. In the event of a fire outbreak, the panels inform the building occupants of the particular detector issuing the alarm and thus, the precise location of the fire can be inferred.

Why The Addressable System is Preferred to the Conventional System?

Cost
Conventional zoning systems have low purchasing costs and very high installation costs. They require more wires and additional labour time during installation. Addressable zoning systems, on the other hand, have higher purchasing costs and very low installation costs. They also have additional features that help in preventing false alarms which are quite costly to the owner of the building.

Ease of Installation
Installation of conventional zoning systems are more difficult, expensive and time consuming, when compared to the addressable zoning system.

Reliability
The addressable zoning system is more reliable than the conventional zoning system. In the addressable system, isolation modules are used to separate detectors in a loop or zone. Thus, if a detector gets disconnected, the other detectors in the loop continue functioning. The proper installation of an addressable panel can lead to the overall reliability of the fire alarm and detection system.

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Complexity
The addressable zoning system is superior to the conventional system in terms of complexity. While the conventional zoning system is pretty simple and executes basic fire alarm and detection functions, the addressable zoning system is more compels and sophisticated, having additional features and functions.

Addressable zoning systems are very flexible and powerful when used properly. However, it is important to note that the choice of zoning system to be used is actually dependent on a lot of factors. The consumer or home owner has to consider the following before deciding on the zoning system to purchase and install: the type and size of the building, the installer, the cost and the budget, the level of security needed, among others. Whatever zoning system chosen must be able to suit the needs of the home and its owner.